Longest reigns

The following is a survey of the longest reigns among the reigning monarchs. After the Kingdom of Nepal was abolished on 28 May 2008 and after the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan, a religious monarchy, ceased to exist in the fall of 2001, there are today 44 monarchies in the world. Queen Elizabeth II is head of state of 16 of them. If the monarch in question has reigned in several (different) periods, only the last reign will count.

No. Country Name Succeeded Heir
1 United Kingdom1 HM Queen Elizabeth II, b. 21 Apr 1926 6 Feb 1952, upon the death of her father, King George VI HRH The Prince of Wales (Prince Charles), b. 14 Nov 1948
2 Brunei Darussalam HM Sultan Haji Hassanal Bolkiah Mu'izzaddin Waddaulah, b. 15 Jul 1946 5 Oct 1967, upon the abdication of his father, Al-Marhum Sultan Haji Omar Ali Saifuddien Sa'adul Khairi Waddien2 HRH Crown Prince Haji Al-Muhtadee Billah, b. 17 Feb 19743
3 Denmark HM Queen Margrethe II, b. 16 Apr 1940 14 Jan 1972, upon the death of her father, King Frederik IX HRH Crown Prince Frederik, b. 26 May 1968
4 Sweden HM King Carl XVI Gustaf, b. 30 Apr 1946 15 Sep 1973, upon the death of his grandfather King Gustaf VI Adolf HRH Crown Princess Victoria, b. 14 July 1977
5 Swaziland HM King Mswati III, b. 19 Apr 1968 25 Apr 1986, upon enthronement4 None
6 Liechtenstein HSH Prince Hans-Adam, b. 14 Feb 1945 13 Nov 1989, upon the death of his father, Prince Franz Josef II HSH Hereditary Prince Alois, b. 11 Jun 1968
7 Norway HM King Harald V, b. 21 Feb 1937 17 Jan 1991, upon the death of his father King Olav V HRH Crown Prince Haakon, b. 20 Jul 1973
8 Lesotho HM King Letsie III, b. 17 Jul 1963 7 Feb 1996, upon reinstallation5 None (College of Chiefs nominates the new King)6
9 Jordan HM King Abdullah II, b. 30 Jan 1962 7 Feb 1999, upon the death of his father King Hussein HRH Prince Hussein Bin Abdullah, b. 28 June 1994 7
10 Bahrain HM Sheikh Hamad Bin Isa Al Khalifa, King of Bahrain, b. 28 Jan 19508 6 March 1999, upon the death of Sheikh Isa Bin Sulman Al Khalifa, Emir HH Shaikh Salman Bin Hamad Bin Isa Al-Khalifa, Crown Prince, b. 21 Oct 1969
11 Morocco HM King Muhammad VI, b. 21 Aug 1963 23 Jul 1999,9 upon the death of his father, King Hassan II HRH Prince Moulay Hassan, b. 8 May 2003
12 Luxembourg HRH Grand Duke Henri, b. 16 Apr 1955 7 Oct 2000, upon the abdication of his father, Grand Duke Jean HRH Hereditary Grand Duke Guillaume, b. 11 Nov 1981
13 Andorra10 HE Joan Enric Vives Sicilia, Co-Prince of Andorra, Bishop of Urgell, b. 24 July 1949 12 May 2003, upon the Pope's appointment as Bishop of Urgell11 None (future Bishop of Urgell)
14 Cambodia HM King Norodom Sihamoni, b. 14 May 1953 14 Oct 2004 upon election by the Throne Council, following the abdication of HM King Norodom Sihanouk on 6 Oct 2004 None12
15 United Arab Emirates13 HH Sheikh Khalifa Bin Zayed Al Nahayan, President, Ruler of Abu Dhabi, b. 1948 3 Nov 2004, upon election by the Supreme Council of Rulers following the death of his father, HH Sheikh Zayed Bin Sultan Al Nahayan on 2 Nov 2004 HH Sheikh Mohammed Bin Rashid Al Maktoum, Vice President, Ruler of Dubai, b. 194914
16 Monaco HSH Prince Albert II, b. 14 March 1958 6 April 2005, upon the death of his father, Prince Rainier III HSH Hereditary Prince Jacques, Marquis of Baux, b. 10 Dec 2014.15
17 Bhutan HM Druk Gyalpo (King) Jigme Khesar Namgyal Wangchuk, b. 21 Feb 1980 14 Dec 2006, 16 following the abdication of his father HM King Jigme Singye Wangchuk (king 1972–2006). H.R.H. Prince Jigme Namgyel Wangchuck, Druk Gyalsey, b. 5 February 2016
18 Samoa HH O le Ao o le Malo (Head of State) Tuiatua Tupua Tamasese Efi, b. 1938 20 June 2007, 17 upon swearing in ceremony after election, 18 following the death of HH O le Ao o le Malo (Head of State) Malietoa Tanumafili II on 11 May 2007 None (to be elected)
19 Tonga H.M. 'Aho'eitu 'Unuaki-'o-Tonga Tuku'aho Tupou VI, 19 b. 12 July 1959 18 March 2012, 20 upon the death of his brother HM King George Tupou V HRH Prince Siaosi Manumataongo, b. 17 September 1985
20 The Netherlands HM King Willem-Alexander, b. 27 April 1967 30 April 2013, upon the abdication21 of his mother, Queen Beatrix HRH The Princess of Orange (Catharina-Amalia), b. 7 Dec 2003
21 Qatar HH Sheikh Tamim Bin Hamad Al-Thani, Emir, b. 3 July 1980 25 June 2013, upon the abdication of his father HH Sheikh Hamad Khalifa Al-Thani22 To be named.23
22 Belgium HM King Philippe II, b. 14 April 1960 21 July 2013,24 upon taking the oath following the abdication of his father, King Albert II HRH Princess Elisabeth, Duchess of Brabant, b. 25 Oct 2001
23 Spain HM King Felipe VI, b. 30 Jan 1968 19 June 2014, upon the abdication25 of his father, King Juan Carlos HRH The Princess of Asturias (Leonor), b. 31 Oct 2005
24 Saudi Arabia HM King Salman Bin Abdul Aziz Al Saud, b. 1935 23 January 2015, upon proclamation following the death of his brother King Abdullah Prince Mohammed bin Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud, b. 31 August 1985, appointed 21 June 2015 26
25 Thailand Maha Vajiralongkorn Bodindradebayavarangkun (Rama X), b. 28 Jul 1952 1 December 2016,27 upon proclamation following the death of his father, King Bhumibol Adulyadej (Rama IX), on 13 october 2016 Undecided.28
26 Andorra10 HE François Emmanuel Macron, Co-Prince of Andorra, President of the French Republic, b. 21 December 1977 14 May 2017 (inauguration day), following election 7 May 2012 None (future President of the French Republic).
27 Malaysia29 HM Yang di-Pertuan Agong (King/Head of state) Abdullah Ri'ayatuddin, Sultan of Pahang, b. 30 July 195930 31 January 2019 (swearing-in ceremony), following election on 24 January 2019 HRH Timbalan Yang di-Pertuan Agong (Deputy King/Head of state) Nazrin Muizzuddin Shah, Sultan of Perak, b. 27 November 195631
28 Japan HM Emperor Naruhito, b. 23 Feb 1960 1 May 2019, upon the abdication of his father, Emperor Akihito, on 30 April 201932 HIH Crown Prince Akishino (Fumihito), 30 November 1965
29 Oman HM Sultan Haitham bin Tariq bin Taimur al-Mu'azzam, b. 13 Oct 1954 11 Jan 2020, when elected by the Royal Family Council following the death of Sultan Qaboos bin Sa'id bin Taimur al-Mu'azzam on 10 Jan 2020 None33
30 Kuwait HH Sheikh Nawaf Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah, Emir, b. 25 June 1937 30 September 2020, on taking the oath following the death of his half-brother Sabah Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah, b. 1929, the day before. 34 Undecided. 35


  1. The Queen of the United Kingdom is also Queen of the following Commonwealth countries: Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Jamaica, Barbados, Bahamas, Grenada, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Tuvalu, St.Lucia, St.Vincent & the Grenadines, Antigua & Barbuda, Belize and St.Kitts and Nevis, i.e. 15 countries.
  2. Cf. The Brunei Government's Official Website (url http://www.brunei.gov.bn/government/index.htm now closed),
  3. Cf. The Brunei Government's Official Website (url http://www.crownprince.gov.bn/ not working at present), «10 August, 1998, corresponding to 17 Rabiulakhir, 1419 Hijriah in the Islamic Calendar was a historic event for Brunei Darussalam. The date marked the Royal Proclamation of His Royal Highness Prince Haji Al-Muhtadee Billah as the Crown Prince of Brunei Darussalam.»
  4. Indlovukazi Dzeliwe became Queen Regent and Head of State upon the death of King Sobhuza II on 21 August 1982. Prince Makhosetive (meaning «King of All Nations») was formally installed as King Mswati III at his enthronement on 25 April 1986 when he had reached his age of majority. According to Burke's Royal Families of the World, Vol. II, p. 214, «The title of the Kings of Swaziland is Ngwenyama (The Lion) and their power is always shared with a Queen Mother, who has the title of Ndlovukazi (The Lady Elephant). If a King's actual mother dies, an aunt or other close relation of the same clan is appointed to fill the office. The heir to the throne is only chosen after a King's death from among his younger sons (the eldest is never chosen) and must have no full brothers, nor be left-handed.»
  5. King Letsie III has also reigned from 12 Nov 1990 to 25 Jan 1995, when he abdicated in favour of his father. King Moeshoeshoe died on 15 Jan 1996. The College of Chiefs decided on 18 Jan 1996 that Letsie should succeed his father. His succession is counted from his installation date, cf. Almanach de Bruxelles. He was crowned on 31 October 1997.
  6. Cf. Burke's Royal Families of the World, Vol. II, p. 157, King Letsie was referred to as «Prin Chief-designate of Matsieng and Heir Apparent». But at the official Lesotho page, we are told that «He was installed as the Principal Chief of Matsieng on December 16, 1989». It is unknown to me if a new Principal Chief of Matsient has been appointed after Letsie III succeeded.
  7. HRH Prince Hamzah Bin Hussein, b. 29 March 1980, was Heir Apparent with the title Crown Prince («Wali al-Ahd») from 7 Feb 1999 until 28 November 2004, when King Abdullah by decree and by letter to his younger half-brother decided to deprive him of his title and position. In accordance with the Constitution Art. 28 the King's son, Prince Hussein, automatically became Heir Apparent, although this might change if the King decides to appoint another brother of his as Crown Prince.
  8. Bahrain was transformed from an emirate to a kingdom on 14 Februar 2002, cf. Royal Order No. 1/2002 («Royal Order on the Kingdom of Bahrain», translation published in The Bahrain Tribune 15 February 2002).
  9. Enthronement 30 July 1999, cf. his biography at Mincom.gov.ma (url http://www.mincom.gov.ma/english/generalities/hismajesty/SM_MedVI.html now closed).
  10. Please note that Andorra, being a co-principality, is counted twice. The Bishop of Urgell and President of the French Republic are both Co-Princes. See the Wikipedia article on the Co-Princes of Andorra for more details.
  11. HE Joan Enric Vives Sicilia (b. 24 July 1949) was on 25 June 2001 appointed as Coadjutor Bishop of Urgell, which meant that he would succeed the then Bishop of Urgell, Joan Martí Alanis (b. 29 Nov 1928), now Archbishop ad personam, as Bishop and Co-Prince on his retirement or death. The Pope accepted Martí's resignment on 12 May 2003 and Vives was appointed as the new Bishop of Urgell and Co-Prince of Andorra. Martí reigned as Co-Prince of Andorra from 31 Jan 1971 to 12 May 2003.
  12. Cambodia is an elective monarchy, cf. the Constitution Art. 10. The Royal Council of the Throne makes the election, and according to Article 14 «The King of Cambodia shall be a member of the Royal family, of at least 30 years, descending from the blood line of King Ang Duong, King Norodom or King Sisowath».
  13. The United Arab Emirates is a federation of monarchies. The title «president» is somewhat misleading, as the head of state of the federation is «president» of the Supreme Council of Rulers, i.e. he is the presiding ruler among seven co-equal emirs. The president of the UAE is elected for a five-year period. Sheikh Khalifa's father Sheikh Zayed was President from 1971 to his death in 2004.
  14. The Vice President does not get (automatically) promoted when the President resigns or dies. The former Vice President was elected the first time in 1990 when his father died, but only served as acting President when Sheikh Zayed died on 2 November 2004 until Sheikh Khalifa was elected as new President the day after.
  15. In reality only the rulers of Abu Dhabi and Dubai are elected as President and Vice President repsectively, reflecting their emirates' dominating position in the union. According to his official website, HH Sheikh Mohammed Bin Rashid Al Maktoum was elected Vice President of the UAE by the Supreme Council on Friday 6 January 2006, 2 days after his brother, Sheikh Maktoum Bin Rashid Al Maktoum, had died while on vacation in Australia.
  16. HRH Hereditary Prince Jacques, Marquis of Baux, became first in line of succession to the Princely Throne of Monaco the very second he was born on 10 December 2014. He has an elder twin sister, Princess Gabriella, Countess of Carladès, but the Constitution Article 10 stipulates succession "by order of primogeniture with priority given to males within the same degree of kinship".
  17. HM King Jigme Singye Wangchuk issued on 9 December 2006 a royal kasho where he handed over his responsibilities as Monarch and head of state of Bhutan to his eldest son Crown Prince Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchuck. According to Kuenselonline.com 15 December 2006 the formal transition took place on 14 December 2006, when Jigme Khesar Namgyal Wangchuk assumed the full responsibilities as head of state as the 5th Druk Gyalpo (King) of Bhutan.
  18. Tuiatua Tupua Tamasese Efi was selected as Head of State by the parliament on Friday 16 June 2007, cf. Pacific Magazine Monday 18 June 2007. The election was officially confirmed by the Parliament on 18 June 2007 and the new head of statet was sworn in on 20 June 2007.
  19. HH O le Ao o le Malö (Head of State) Malietoa Tanumafili II, b. 4 Jan 1912, passed away peacefully at the Tupua Tamasese Meaole Memorial Hospital, Samoa, at 6.45 PM, Friday, 11 May 2007.
  20. Tupua Tamasese Mea'ole and Malietoa Tanumafili II assumed jointly on the Independence Day 1 January 1962 the office of Head of State. Tupua Tamasese Mea'ole died on 5 April 1963 and Malietoa Tanumafili II reigned alone since that date. The Constitution says that upon his death, the head of state will be elected every fifth year. Part III article 18 paragraph 2 of the Constitution says among others that «A person shall not be qualified to be elected to the office of Head of State - (a) If he is not a person qualified to be elected as a Member of Parliament; or (b) If he does not possess such other qualifications as the Legislative Assembly may determine from time to time by resolution; [...]». Samoan law (Constitution and Electoral act) stipulates that only holders of Matai (noble) titles, with the exception of 2 seats, can be elected to Parliament (http://www.parliament.gov.ws/general.cfm). It is also an understanding that the office of Head of State should only be held by the holder of one of the four royal titles of Samoa (as confirmed by the Samoan Ambassador to Brussels in 2006, to Lukasz Szkopinski, Asian Royals Message Board, 15 May 2007) - Malietoa, Tamasese, Tuimaleali'ifano or Mata'afa; so even though the head of state is not titled king and Samoa is not defined as a monarchy in its official name ("The Independent State of Samoa"), it is in all but name an elective monarchy, and is therefore listed, at least for now, in the survey «Longest reigns».
  21. Until the new reign name is announced, I have decided to give his name in full, i.e. H.M. 'Aho'eitu 'Unuaki-'o-Tonga Tuku'aho Tupou VI.
  22. HM King George Tupou V, b. 4 May 1948, died at Hong Kong at 3 p.m. on 18 March 2012, cf. the announcement of the Tonga Government Portal. Ministry of Information & Communications 19 March 2012.
  23. 30 April 2013. Koningin ondertekent Akte van Abdicatie cf. also the text of the abdication document, Akte van Abdikatie.
  24. Al Jazeera 25 June 2013: Qatar's emir transfers power to son.
  25. Cf. Article 8 of the Constitution of Qatar: «The rule of the State is hereditary in the family of Al Thani and in the line of the male descendants of Hamad Bin Khalifa Bin Hamad Bin Abdullah Bin Jassim. The rule shall be inherited by the son named as Heir Apparent by the Emir. In the case that there is no such son, the prerogatives of rule shall pass to the member of the family named by the Emir as Heir Apparent. In this case, his male descendants shall inherit the rule. The provisions of the rule of the State and accession shall be determined by a special law that shall be issued within a year commencing as from the date of coming into force of this Constitution. This law shall have the power of the Constitution.» (cf. the official website of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Qatar.)
  26. The Belgian Constitution Article 90 Paragraph 2 says that «From the moment of the King's death and until the taking of oath by his successor to the throne or by the Regent, the King's constitutional powers are exercised, in the name of the Belgian people, by the Council of Ministers, and under their responsibility.» In the following Article 91 Paragraph 2 we learn that «The King may accede to the throne only after having taken the following oath before the united Houses [...]». In this context the king or reigning queen who abdicates is regarded as «legally dead». The abdication ceremony for King Albert II took place on 21 June 2013 at 10.30, while the swearing in ceremony for Philippe started at noon the same day. The time the government exercised the King's constitutional powers was in other words rather short.
  27. King Juan Carlos announced on 2 June 2014 in form of a signed letter to the prime minister, Mariano Rajoy, his decision to abdicate. The Act of Abdication was signed by the Congress of Deputies on 11 June and the Senate on 17 June 2014. On June 18th the act was signed into law by King Juan Carlos, and the act then came into force "as from the date of its publication in the Official State Gazette", i.e. 19 June 2014.
  28. Prince Mohammed bin Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud was appointed Crown Prince of Saudi Arabia by royal decree of 21 June 2017, replacing Prince Mohammed bin Nayef bin Abdul Aziz Al Saud, b. 1959, who had held the position from 29 April 2015.
  29. In accordance with the Constitution of Thailand, Prem Tinsulanonda, as president of the Privy Council, became Regent pro tempore upon the death of King Bhumibol Adulyadej om 13 October 2016. The designated heir, the late king's eldest son, Crown Prince Vajiralongkor, b. 28 Jul 1952, who received the title «Somdech Phra Boroma Orasadhiraj Chao Fah Maha Vajiralongkorn Sayam Makutrajakuman» on December 28, 1972, making him the Crown Prince and heir to the throne, informed the government that he wanted some time to mourn with the people. The national assembly's formal invitation to ascend the throne and be proclaimed king was therefore been put on hold. See the article«Prem becomes Regent pro tempore», Bangkok Post 14 October 2016. Vajiralongkorn then succeeded to the throne on 1 December 2016 after having formally accepted an invitation to ascend the throne from the National Legislative Assembly president, cf. «Crown Prince becomes King», Bangkok Post 1 December 2016. See also «Thai Crown Prince Maha Vajiralongkorn proclaimed king», BBC News 1 December 2016.
  30. The succession to the throne of Thailand seems to be a bit unclear at the moment. King Vajiralongkorn will in due time have to appoint an heir in accordance with the 1924 Palace succession law. The Draft Constitution, which hopefully will soon come into force, leaves it to the king to amend the succession law. See also the Wikipedia article about the succession law.
  31. The Malaysian throne is elective and rotating among the sultans of the member states of the Federation ( Alt.talk.royalty FAQ ), cf. Art. 38 of the Constitution.
  32. Sultan Abdu'llah bin Sultan Haji Ahmad Shah al-Mustain Billah of Pahang (other sources write the name as Abdullah Ri'ayatuddin Al-Mustafa Billah Shah) was elected by the Conference of Rulers as the new King of Malaysia on 24 January 2019, cf. The Star 24 January 2019, «Congratulations pour in for Pahang Sultan after being elected King». He took office following the swearing-in ceremony in Kuala Lumpur on 31 January 2019, cf. The Straits Times 31 January 2019, «Pahang's Sultan Abdullah sworn in as Malaysia's King after historic abdication of predecessor».
    His predecessor, Muhammad V, the 15th Yang di-Pertuan Agong, abdicated the throne on 6 January 2018, cf. The Star 6 January 2018, «Sultan Muhammad V steps down as Agong» and The Telegraph, «King of Malaysia abdicates amid rumours of marriage to ex-Russian beauty queen». Muhammad V of Kelantan, the Sultan of Kelantan, was elected the 15th Yang di-Pertuan Agong at the Conference of Rulers held on 14 October 2016. He was sworn in on 13 Dec 2016, cf. Channel NewsAsia 14 October 2016 and BBC News 13 December 2016. The Deputy King was acting King until the new king was elected by the Conference of Rulers.
  33. The Sultan of Perak is styled Royal Highness. The position of Deputy King gives no special style. The Sultan was re-elected as Deputy King (Deputy Head of State) on 24 January 2019.
  34. Following the expressed wishes of Emperor Akihito, the National Diet on 8 June 2017 passed a bill allowing the emperor to abdicate. A special panel decided on 1 December 2017 that the abdication would take place on 30 April 2019. Emperor Akihito declared his abdication in a historic ceremony at the Imperial Palace in Tokyo at 5 p.m. local time. According to BBC News, «Akihito technically remained emperor until midnight (15:00 GMT on Tuesday)». Naruhito ascended the throne from midnight 1 May 2019 local time and thus became the 126th Emperor of Japan. The Koreiden-Shinden-ni-Hokoku-no-gi, which is the «rite of reporting the accession to the throne» was sceduled to take place at the Imperial Sanctuaries (Koreiden and Shinden) later on 1 May 2019. A enthronement ceremony will follow in the fall of 2019.
  35. The Basic Statute of the State of Oman Article 5 states that «the system of government is 'Royal' and hereditary in the male descendants of Sayyid Turki bin Said bin Sultan (the great-great-grandfather of His Majesty) and that the successor to the throne shall be a Muslim, of sound mind, and the legitimate son of Omani Muslim parentage. The following article stipulates that the successor will be chosen by the Ruling Family Council within three days of the throne falling vacant. If the Ruling Family Council cannot agree on the choice of successor, the Defence Council shall confirm the appointment of the person designated by the Sultan in his letter to the Ruling Family Council.» (from the url http://www.omanet.com/his_majesty_sultan.htm now closed. See also Mola.gov.om./Nen.pdf (Web.archive.net)).
  36. HH Sheikh Sabah Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah, Emir of Kuwait since 29 January 2006, died in Minnesota, USA on 29 September 2020. His half-brother HH Sheikh Nawaf Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah, who had been Crown Prince since 8 Feburyar 2006, became the new Emir on 30 September 2020 after taking the oath.
  37. Article 4 of the Constitution says: «Kuwait is a hereditary Amirate, the succession to which shall be in the descendants of the late Mubarak al-Sabah.
    * The Heir Apparent shall be designated within one year, at the latest, from the date of accession of the Amir.
    * His designation shall be effected by an Amiri Order upon the nomination of the Amir and the approval of the National Assembly which shall be signified by a majarity vote of its members in a special sitting.
    * In case no designation is achieved in accordance with the foregoing procedure, the Amir shall nominate at least three of the descendants of the late Mubarak al-Sabah of whom the National Assembly shall pledge allegiance to one as Heir Apparent.
    * The Heir Apparent shall have attained his majority, be of sound mind, and a legitimate son of Muslim parents.
    * A special law promulgated within one year from the date of coming into force of this Constitution shall lay down the other rules of succession in the Amirate. The said law shall be of a constitutional nature and therefore shall be capable of amendment only by the procedure prescribed for amendment of the Constitution.»

    As of 30 September 2020, the new heir apparent has yet to be designated.

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The Royal Ark

Rulers.org, among others news 6 May 2012

The Samoa Observer 13 May 2007: On the passing away of His Highness, the Head of State, Susuga Malietoa Tanumafili II (url http://www.samoaobserver.ws/local/LNPages/0507/1107ln002.htm now closed)

Samoa News 20 June 2007.

Saudiembassy.net. News: Royal Court announces death of King Abdullah; Crown Prince Salman proclaimed King (22 January 2015 (EST)).

Saudiembassy.net. News: Prince Muqrin bin Abdulaziz named Crown Prince (22 January 2015 (EST)).

HH Sheikh Mohammed Bin Rashid Al Maktoum's Official Website. News 7 January 2006

The Star 25 April, 26 April, 2 Jun 2002 (Malaysian newspaper).

The Star 3 Nov 2006: Sultan of Terengganu elected next Agong

The Star 13 Dec 2006: Sultan Mizan sworn in as 13th Yang di-Pertuan Agong

Stevenson, William. The Revolutionary King. The True-Life Sequel to The King and I, London: Robinson, 1999 (biography of King Bhumibol of Thailand).

Tarraconense.org (url http://www.tarraconense.org/cast/obispos/vives-sicilia.htm now closed)

The Times 16 and 19 Jan 1996, 8 March 1999.

The Times of Oman 11 January 2020: His Majesty Sultan Qaboos passes away: Royal Court statement The Times of Oman 11 January 2020: His Majesty Haitham bin Tariq sworn in as new Sultan of Oman Tonga Royal Palace Site (Official website of the Tongan Monarchy)

Tonga Government Portal. Ministry of Information & Communication, press release 19 March 2012: Announcing of the Passing Away of a Monarch, King George Tupou V of Tonga

http://www.uae.gov.ae/ (United Arab Emirates Official Government Page)

Vatican News Services 25 June 2001.

Vatican News Services 12 May 2003.

WAM (Emirates News Agency) 3 Nov 2004, (url http://wam.org.ae/NASApp/cs/ContentServer?pagename=WAM%2FWamLocEnews%2FW-T-LEN-FullNews&c=WamLocEnews&cid=1099484874195&p=1041248621847 now closed)

This page was last updated on Wednesday 30 September 2020
(first time published at http://www.geocities.com/dagtho/reigns.html on Tuesday 4 June 2002).

© 2002–2020 Dag Trygsland Hoelseth